Improving the Properties of the Porous Polylactic Acid Scaffold by Akermanite Nanoparticles for Bone Tissue Engineering

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Department of Biomedical Engineering, Central Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran 13185/768, Iran.

2 Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Golpayegan University of Technology, Golpayegan, Iran.

3 Department of Nano Biotecnology, Pasteur Institute of Iran, Tehran, Iran.

4 Hard tissue engineering research center, tissue engineering and regenerative medicine institute, central Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran.


Bone tissue engineering serves as a solution to repair and rebuild the damaged bone. In this study, first, the akermanite nanoparticles were synthesized by the sol-gel method; then the polylactic acid (PLA) scaffold was made using the fused deposition modelling (FDM), and the akermanite nanoparticle booster was used to improve its properties. The image of the electron microscopy (TEM) from akermanite particles showed that the size of these particles was 100 nm. The microstructure and phases of the scaffold was examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The results of the field emission electron microscopy (FESEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS, map) showed that the nanoparticles had a uniform distribution in the polymer matrix.
The results of the compression test also revealed that the addition of akermanite nanoparticles improved the strength of the polymer scaffold. The bioactivity test was performed by immersing the scaffolds in the simulate body fluid (SBF) and then was examined using (SEM). Formation of the hydroxyapatite crystals on the surface of the scaffold containing akermanite nanoparticles, showing that the addition of akermanite particles improved the bioactivity and mechanical properties of the scaffold; therefore, this scaffold could be a good choice for use in bone tissue engineering.