Document Type : Research Paper


1 Advanced Materials Research Center, Department of Materials Engineering, Najafabad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Najafabad, Iran

2 Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Ahvaz, Iran.

3 Advanced Materials Research Center, Department of Materials Engineering, Najafabad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Najafabad, Iran.


In this study, ultrasonic bath and milling processes were used to synthesis epoxy resin-multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) composite, and their effect on the absorption of magnetic waves was investigated using the Vector Network Analyzer (VNA) test. The effect of the concentration of MWCNT used to attract the wave's magnetic part in the epoxy resin matrix is also investigated. This study showed that the optimal amount of MWCNT in this epoxy resin-MWCNT composite was about 5 wt.% for the ultrasonic bath method, while it was around 15 wt% for the milling method. The ultrasonic bath caused the reflection losses (RL) value reaches to about -25 dB in the range of 9 to 11 GHz. The results of the VSM test showed that the composite produced from epoxy resin and MWCNT is a soft magnetic material. Also, the sample produced in the ultrasonic bath process has a higher magnetic saturation than the milling process, which causes it to absorb more electromagnetic waves.


Main Subjects


    1. Conclusions

    According to the results obtained from the discussion and conclusion, it can be reported that:

    1- The presence of compounds with two bands can help absorb the electrical part of the wave to absorb electromagnetic waves. In addition, the ultrasonic bath makes the MWCNT segregated more conveniently compared to the milling process.

    2- Due to the absence of steel balls used in the milling process, the MWCNTs are not damaged in the ultrasonic intermediate process. Moreover, the production sample with the intermediate milling process causes areas with carbon nanotube agglomeration to be created.

    3- The presence of carbon nanotubes that experienced mechanical damage and agglomeration reduces the electrical conductivity in the samples, which ultimately reduces the absorption of electromagnetic waves.

    4- The highest reflection losses (RL) observed in the sample contains 5 wt.% carbon nanotubes, which were produced via the ultrasonic bath. Also, its maximum RL value range is 11-9 GHz and about -25 dB. Furthermore, the sample produced in the ultrasonic bath process has a higher magnetic saturation than in the milling process, which causes it to absorb more electromagnetic waves.



    [1] J. Rushchitsky, Theory of waves in materials, ed., Bookboon, 2011.

    [2] J. Cao, W. Fu, H. Yang, Q. Yu, Y. Zhang, S. Liu, P. Sun, X. Zhou, Y. Leng, S. Wang, B. Liu, G. Zou, "Large-scale synthesis and microwave absorption enhancement of actinomorphic tubular ZnO/CoFe2O4 nanocomposites". The Journal of Physical Chemistry B., Vol. 113, No. 14, 2009, pp. 4642-7.

    [3] I.V. Shadrivov, M. Lapine, Y.S. Kivshar, Nonlinear, tunable and active metamaterials. Cham, Switzerland: Springer International Publishing; 2015.

    [4] L. Peng, L. Li, R. Wang, Y. Hu, X. Tu, X. Zhong, " Microwave sintered Sr1− xLaxFe12− xCoxO19 (x= 0–0.5) ferrites for use in low temperature co-fired ceramics technology. Journal of Alloys and Compounds, Vol. 656, No.  2016, pp. 290-294.

    [5] S. Lu, K. Ma, X. Wang, X. Xiong, W. Xu, C. Jia, " Fabrication and characterization of polymer composites surface coated Fe3O4/MWCNTs hybrid buckypaper as a novel microwave‐absorbing structure. Journal of Applied Polymer Science, Vol. 132, No. 20, 2015, pp. 41974.

    [6] I. Al Kawni, R. Garcia, S. Youssef, M. Abboud, J. Podlecki, R. Habchi, "Stabilization and encapsulation of magnetite nanoparticles", Materials Research Express, Vol. 3, No. 12, 2016, pp. 125024.

    [7] N. Shiri, A. Amirabadizadeh, A. Ghasemi, "Influence of carbon nanotubes on structural, magnetic and electromagnetic characteristics of mnmgtizr substituted barium hexaferrite nanoparticles", Journal of Alloys Compounds, Vol. 690, No.  2017, pp. 759-764.

    [8] X. Jian, B. Wu, Y. Wei, S.X. Dou, X. Wang, W. He, N. Mahmood, " Facile synthesis of Fe3O4/GCs composites and their enhanced microwave absorption properties. ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces, Vol. 8, No. 9, 2016, pp. 6101-6109.

    [9] Z. Yan, J. Cai, Y. Xu, D. Zhang, "Microwave absorption property of the diatomite coated by Fe-CoNiP films". Applied Surface Science, Vol. 346, No.  2015, pp. 77-83.

    [10] C.H. Papas, Theory of electromagnetic wave propagation, ed., Courier Corporation, 2014.

    [11] M.F. Iskander, Electromagnetic fields and waves, ed., Prentice Hall, 1992.

    [12] L.-F. Chen, C. Ong, C. Neo, V. Varadan, V.K. Varadan, Microwave electronics: Measurement and materials characterization, ed., John Wiley & Sons, 2004.

    [13] X.C. Tong, Advanced materials and design for electromagnetic interference shielding, ed., CRC press, 2016.

    [14] D. Micheli, C. Apollo, R. Pastore, M. Marchetti, "X-band microwave characterization of carbon-based nanocomposite material, absorption capability comparison and ras design simulation", Composites Science and Technology, Vol. 70, No. 2, 2010, pp. 400-409.

    [15] X. Qi, Y. Deng, W. Zhong, Y. Yang, C. Qin, C. Au, Y. Du, "Controllable and large-scale synthesis of carbon nanofibers, bamboo-like nanotubes, and chains of nanospheres over Fe/SnO2 and their microwave-absorption properties". The Journal of Physical Chemistry C., Vol. 114, No. 2, 2010, pp. 808-814.

    [16] M.-J. Park, J. Choi, S.-S. Kim, "Wide bandwidth pyramidal absorbers of granular ferrite and carbonyl iron powders", IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, Vol. 36, No. 5, 2000, pp. 3272-3274.

    [17] E.F. Kuester, C.L. Holloway, "A low-frequency model for wedge or pyramid absorber arrays-i: Theory", IEEE Transactions on Electromagnetic Compatibility, Vol. 36, No. 4, 1994, pp. 300-306.

    [18] C.L. Holloway, E.F. Kuester, "A low-frequency model for wedge or pyramid absorber arrays-ii: Computed and measured results", IEEE Transactions on Electromagnetic Compatibility, Vol. 36, No. 4, 1994, pp. 307-313.

    [19] D.-A. Li, H.-B. Wang, J.-M. Zhao, X. Yang, "Fabrication and electromagnetic characteristics of microwave absorbers containing ppy and carbonyl iron composite", Materials Chemistry and Physics, Vol. 130, No. 1-2, 2011, pp. 437-441.

    [20] A. Mandal, C.K. Das, " Effect of BaTiO3 on the microwave absorbing properties of Co‐doped Ni‐Zn ferrite nanocomposites ", Journal of Applied Polymer Science, Vol. 131, No. 4, 2014.

    [21] Y. Zhai, Y. Zhang, W. Ren, "Electromagnetic characteristic and microwave absorbing performance of different carbon-based hydrogenated acrylonitrile–butadiene rubber composites", Materials Chemistry and Physics. Vol. 133, No. 1, 2012, pp. 176-181.

    [22] T. Ting, Y. Jau, R. Yu, "Microwave absorbing properties of polyaniline/multi-walled carbon nanotube composites with various polyaniline contents", Applied Surface Science, Vol. 258, No. 7, 2012, pp. 3184-3190.

    [23] B.Q.N. Bien Dong Che, Le-Thu T Nguyen, Ha Tran Nguyen, Viet Quoc Nguyen, Thang Van Le & Nieu Huu Nguyen "The impact of different multi-walled carbon nanotubes on the X-band microwave absorption of their epoxy nanocomposites", Chemistry Central Journal Vol. 9, No.  2015, pp.1-13.

    [24] Z. Wu, S. Li, , M. Liu, Z. Wang and X. Liu,. Liquid oxygen compatible epoxy resin: Modification and characterization. RSC Advances, 2015, 5(15), pp.11325-11333.

    [25] S. Rathee, S. Maheshwari, A.N. Siddiquee, M. Srivastava, "A review of recent progress in solid state fabrication of composites and functionally graded systems via friction stir processing", J Critical Reviews in Solid State Materials Sciences, Vol. 43, No. 4, 2018, pp. 334-366.

    [26] H. Li, A. Misra, Z. Horita, C.C. Koch, N.A. Mara, P.O. Dickerson, Y. Zhu, "Strong and ductile nanostructured cu-carbon nanotube composite", J Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 95, No. 7, 2009, pp. 071907.

    [27] S. Barrau, P. Demont, E. Perez, A. Peigney, C. Laurent, C.J.M. Lacabanne, "Effect of palmitic acid on the electrical conductivity of carbon nanotubes− epoxy resin composites", Macromolecules. Vol. 36, No. 26, 2003, pp. 9678-9680.

    [28] J. Sandler, M. Shaffer, T. Prasse, W. Bauhofer, K. Schulte, A.J.P. Windle, "Development of a dispersion process for carbon nanotubes in an epoxy matrix and the resulting electrical properties", Polymer. Vol. 40, No. 21, 1999, pp. 5967-5971.

    [29] Y.S. Song, J.R.J.C. Youn, "Influence of dispersion states of carbon nanotubes on physical properties of epoxy nanocomposites", Carbon. Vol. 43, No. 7, 2005, pp. 1378-1385.

    [30] H. Zhuang, G. Zheng, A. Soh, "Interactions between transition metals and defective carbon nanotubes", J Computational Materials Science, Vol. 43, No. 4, 2008, pp. 823-828.

    [31] H. Kaurav, S. Manchanda, K. Dua, D.N. Kapoor, "Nanocomposites in controlled & targeted drug delivery systems", Proc. Nano Hybrids and Composites, 2018, pp. 27-45.

    [32] J. Hernández, M.C. García-Gutiérrez, A. Nogales, D.R. Rueda, M. Kwiatkowska, A. Szymczyk, Z. Roslaniec, A. Concheso, I. Guinea, T.A. Ezquerra, "Influence of preparation procedure on the conductivity and transparency of swcnt-polymer nanocomposites", J Composites Science Technology, Vol. 69, No. 11-12, 2009, pp. 1867-1872.

    [33] J. Li, P.C. Ma, W.S. Chow, C.K. To, B.Z. Tang, J.K. Kim, "Correlations between percolation threshold, dispersion state, and aspect ratio of carbon nanotubes", J Advanced Functional Materials, Vol. 17, No. 16, 2007, pp. 3207-3215.

    [34] J. Aguilar, J. Bautista-Quijano, F.J.E.P.L. Avilés, "Influence of carbon nanotube clustering on the electrical conductivity of polymer composite films", Express Polym Lett. Vol. 4, No. 5, 2010, pp. 292-299.

    [35] A.P. Singh, P. Garg, F. Alam, K. Singh, R. Mathur, R. Tandon, A. Chandra, S. Dhawan, "Phenolic resin-based composite sheets filled with mixtures of reduced graphene oxide, γ-Fe2O3 and carbon fibers for excellent electromagnetic interference shielding in the x-band", Carbon, Vol. 50, No. 10, 2012, pp. 3868-3875.

    [36] H.-B. Zhang, Q. Yan, W.-G. Zheng, Z. He, Z.-Z. Yu, "Tough graphene− polymer microcellular foams for electromagnetic interference shielding", ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces, Vol. 3, No. 3, 2011, pp. 918-924.

    [37] G. De Bellis, A. Tamburrano, A. Dinescu, M.L. Santarelli, M.S. Sarto, "Electromagnetic properties of composites containing graphite nanoplatelets at radio frequency", Carbon, Vol. 49, No. 13, 2011, pp. 4291-4300.

    [38] P. Bhattacharya, C.K. Das, S.S. Kalra, "Graphene and mwcnt: Potential candidate for microwave absorbing materials", Journal of Materials Science Research, Vol. 1, No. 2, 2012, pp. 126.

    [39] S.u.D. Khan, M. Arora, M.A. Wahab, P. Saini, "Permittivity and electromagnetic interference shielding investigations of activated charcoal loaded acrylic coating compositions", Journal of Polymers, Vol. 2014, No.  2014, Article ID 193058.

    [40] A. Gharieh, M.S. Seyed Dorraji, "A systematic study on the synergistic effects of mwcnts and core–shell particles on the physicomechanical properties of epoxy resin", Scientific Reports. Vol. 11, No. 1, 2021, pp. 1-11.

    [41] G. Hu, W. Fu, Y. Ma, J. Zhou, H. Liang, X. Kang, X.J.M. Qi, "Rapid preparation of MWCNTS/epoxy resin nanocomposites by photoinduced frontal polymerization", Materials. Vol. 13, No. 24, 2020, pp. 5838.

    [42] S. Roy, R.S. Petrova, S.J.N.r. Mitra, "Effect of carbon nanotube (CNT) functionalization in epoxy-CNT composites", Nanotechnology reviews, Vol. 7, No. 6, 2018, pp. 475-485.

    [43] M. Yazdi, V.H. Asl, M. Pourmohammadi, H. Roghani-Mamaqani, "Mechanical properties, crystallinity, and self-nucleation of carbon nanotube-polyurethane nanocomposites", Polymer Testing. Vol. 79, No.  2019, pp. 106011.

    [44] M. Haghgoo, R. Ansari, M.J.C.P.B.E. Hassanzadeh-Aghdam, "Prediction of electrical conductivity of carbon fiber-carbon nanotube-reinforced polymer hybrid composites", Composites Part B: Engineering. Vol. 167, No.  2019, pp. 728-735.

    [45] M.A. Zhilyaeva, E.V. Shulga, S.D. Shandakov, I.V. Sergeichev, E.P. Gilshteyn, A.S. Anisimov, A.G. Nasibulin, "A novel straightforward wet pulling technique to fabricate carbon nanotube fibers", Carbon. Vol. 150, No.  2019, pp. 69-75.

    [46] H. Jintoku, Y. Matsuzawa, M.J.C. Yoshida, "Dual use of anionic azobenzene derivative as dispersant and dopant for carbon nanotubes for enhanced thermal stability of transparent conductive films", Carbon. Vol. 152, No.  2019, pp. 247-254.

    [47] J. Pan, L.J.M.C. Bian, Physics, "A physics investigation for influence of carbon nanotube agglomeration on thermal properties of composites", Materials Chemistry and Physics. Vol. 236, No.  2019, pp. 121777.