Document Type : Research Paper

Authors

1 Department of Materials Engineering, University of Tabriz, Tabriz, Iran

2 Department of Materials Engineering, University of Tabriz, Tabriz, Iran; School of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran, Iran

Abstract

In this research, a high entropy alloy of AlCoCrFeNiMn is made through mechanical alloying and the spark plasma sintering processes. Ball milling was done at different times of 12 h, 36 h, and 48 h in a cup with a diameter of 20 cm. Ball to powder percent weight of 10:1 was selected. X-ray diffraction patterns indicate the formation of solid solution microstructure after 48 h. The crystal size decreases from 23 to 16 nm with increasing milling time. The lattice strain of the structure increments from 0.3 to 0.68% with increasing time up to 48 h. SEM images clearly show the phenomenon of powder agglomeration and the absence of intermetallic compounds or brittle, complex structures. It is observed that with increasing ball-milling time, homogenization of powders increases, and the body-centered cubic phase is formed in the structure. The mechanically alloyed powders were consolidated spark plasma sintered at 700, 900, and 1000 °C. 50 MPa pressure, argon gas as atmosphere, and ten minutes as sintering time were selected as the sintering process parameters. The X-ray diffraction pattern shows that the structure of consolidated high entropy alloy has face-centered cubic and body-centered cubic phases. After sintering by the spark plasma method, the density of powders was measured by Archimedes’ rules, and the value was determined as 99% of theoretical density. The structure was without porosity. The hardness was measured using the microhardness Vickers test. Loading force was 50 g and loading time was seven seconds. The highest hardness was about 649 HV0.05.

Keywords

Main Subjects

  • K. Tang, The Process Fundamentals and Parameters of Electro-Spark Deposition, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada, 2009.
  • Environmental Security Technology Certification Program (ESTCP), Electrospark Deposition for Depot- and Field-Level Component Repair and Replacement of Hard Chromium Plating, U.S. Department of defense, Project WP-0202, 2006.
  • sharghivand. H. Aghajani, M. Roostaei: FeNiCrAlCoMn High Entropy Alloy Coating Prepared on Ti6Al4V by ESD, Imat 2018, Tehran, Iran, 2018.
  • Liu, W. Gao, Z. Li, H. Zhang and Z. Hu, Electro-spark deposition of Fe-based amorphous alloy coatings, Materials Letters 61 (2007) 165–167.
  • Praveen, H.S. Kim, High- Entropy Alloys: Potential candidates for High-Temperature Applications-An Overview, Adv. Eng.Mater. 20 (2018) 1700645.
  • Li, P. L., Peter K. Liaw, Microstructure and properties of high-entropy alloy films and coatings: a review, Mater. Res. Lett, 6 (2018) 199-229.
  • Stepanoy, M. Tikhonovsky, N. Yurchenko, D. Zyubkin, M. Klimova, S. Zherebstove, A. Efenov, G. Salishchev, “Effect of cryo-deformation on structure and properties of CoCrFeMnNi high-entropy alloy, Intermetallics, 2015, 59, 8-17.
  • Sckuh, F. Mendez-Martin, B. Volker, E.P. George, H. Clements, R. Pipan, A. Hohenwarter, Mechanical properties, microstructure and thermal stability of a nanocrystalline CoCrFeMnNi high-entropy alloy after sever plastic deformation, Acta Mater. 96 (2015) 258-268.
  • M-R. Chen, S-J. Lin, J-W. Yeh, M-H. Chung, S-K. Chen, Y-S. Huang, Effect of vanadium addition on the microstructure, hardness, and wear resistance of Al0.5CoCrFeMnNi high-entropy alloy, Metal. Mater. Trans. A 37 (5) (2006), 1363-1369.
  • Y. He. W. H. Liu, H. Wang, Y. Wu. X.J. Liu, T. G. Nieh, Z.P. Lu, Effects of Al addition on structural evolution and tensile properties of the CoCrFeMnNi high-entropy alloy system,Acta Mater. 62 (2014) 105-113.
  • Borkar. B. Gwalani, D. Chudhuri, C. V. Mikler, C.J. Yannerta, Xianodong Chen, ghavan Ramanujan, M. J. Styles, M. A. Gibson, R. Banerjee, A combinatorial assessment of AlXCrCuFeNi2 (0˂ X ˂ 1.5) complex concentrated alloys: microstructure, microhardness, and magnetic properties, Acta Mater. 116 (2016) 63-76.
  • Gwalani, V. Soni, D. Choudhuri, M. Lee, J. Y. Hwang, S. J. Nam, H. Ryu, S. H. Hong, R. Banerjee, Stability of ordered L12 and B2 precipitates in face centered cubic based hugh entropy alloys-Al0.3CoFeCrNi and Al0.3CuFeCrNi2.5Cr. Mater. 123 (2016) 130-134.
  • H. Liu, Y. Wu. J. Y. He, T. G. Nieh, Z. P Lu, Grain growth and Hall-Petch relationship in a high-entropy FeCrMnNiCoMn alloy, Scr. Mater. 68 (7) (2013) 526-529.
  • W. Yeh, S. K. Chen, S. J. Lin, J. Y. Gan, T. S. Chin, T. T. Shun, C. H. Tsau, S. Y. Chang, Nanostructured high-entropy alloys with multiple principal elements: Novel alloy design concepts and outcome, Adv. Eng. Mater. 6 (2004) 299-303.
  • Cantor, I.T.H. Chang, P. Knight, A. J. B. Vincent, Microstructural development in equiatomic multicomponent alloys, Mater . Sci. Eng. A. 375-377 (2004) 213-218.
  • J. Tong, M. R. Chen, S. K. Chen, J. W. Yeh, T. T. Shun, S.J. Lin, S. Y. Chang, Mechanical perform of The AlXCrCoCuFeNi High- Entropy Alloy System with Multiprincipal Elements, Metall. Mater. Tran. A. 36 (2005) 1263-1271.
  • K. Huang, J. W. Yeh, T. T. Shun, S. K. Chen, Multi-Principal Element Alloy
  • With Improved Oxidation and Wear resistance for thermal Spray Coating, Adv. Eng. Mater. 6 (2004) 74-78.
  • Y. Hsu, J. W. Yeh, S. K. Chen,T.T. Shun, Wear resistance and high-temperature compression strength of FCC CuCoNiCrAl0.5 alloy with boron addition, Metal, Mater. Trans. A. 35 (2004) 1465-1469.
  • B. Zhang, Z. Y. Fu, J. Y. Zhang, W. M. Wang, S. W. Lee, K. Niihara, Characterization of nanocrystalline CoCrFeNiTiAl high-entropy solid solution processed by mechanical alloying, J. Alloys Compond. 495(2010) 33-38.
  • Singh,N. Wanderka, B. S. Murty, U.Glatzel, J. Banhart, Decomposition in multi-component AlCoCrCuFeNi high-entropy alloy, Acta Mater. 59 (2011) 182-190.
  • Praveen, A. Anupam, T. Sirasani, B. S. Murty, R. S. Kottada, Characterization of oxide dispersed AlCoCrFe high entropy alloy synthesized by mechanical alloying spark plasma sintering, Trans. Indian Inst. Met. 66 (2013) 369-373.
  • Zhang, T. T. Zuo, Z. Tange, M. C. Gao, K. A. Dahmen, P. K. Liaw, Z. P. Lu, Microstructure and properties of high-entropy alloys, Prog. Mater. Sci. 61 (2014) 1-93.
  • Otto, A. Dlouhy, C. Somsen, H. Bei, G. Eggeler, E. P. George, The influences of temperature and microstructure, on the tensile properties CoCrFeMnNi high-entropy alloy, Acta Mater. 61(15) (2013) 5743-5755.
  • Roostaei, H. Aghajani, M. Abbasi and B. Abasht, Formation of Al2O3/MoS2 nanocomposite coatings by the use of electro spark deposition and oxidation, Ceramics International, 47 (2021) 11644-53.
  • R. Tan, G. P. Zhang, Q. Zhi, and Z.X. Liu, Effects of milling on the microstructure and hardness of Al2NbTi3Zr high-entropy alloy. Mater. Des. 109 (2016) 27-36.
  • Vaidya, A. Marshal, K. G. Ppradeep, and B. S. Murty: Phase evolution and stability of nanocrystalline CoCrFeNi and CoCrFeMnNi high entropy alloys. J. Alloys Compd. 770, (2019) 1004-15.
  • Ji, W. Wang, H. Wang, J. Zhang, Y.Wang, F. Zhang, and Z. Fu, Alloying behavior and novel properties of CoCrFeMnNi high-entropy alloy fabricated by mechanical alloying and spark plasma sintering. Intermetallics 56 (2014) 24-7.
  • Y. He,W. H. Liu, H. Wang, Y. Wu, X. J. Lui,T. G.Nieh, Z. P. Lu, Effects of Al addition on structural evolution and tensile properties of the FeCoNiCrMn high-entropy alloy system, Acta Mater. 62 (2014) 105-113.
  • Wang, W. Ji, Z. Fu, Mechanical alloying and spark plasma sintering of CoCrFeNiMnAl high-entropy alloy, Adv. Powder Technol. 25 (2014) 1334-1338.
  • Ge, B.Wu, S. Wang, S. Xu, C. Shang, Z. Zhang, and Y. Wang, Characterization and properties of CuZrAlTiNi high entropy alloy coating obtained by mechanical alloying and vacuum hot pressing sintering. Adv. Powder Technol. 28 (2017) 2556-63.
  • Xie, H. Chang, Q.Tang, W. Chen, W. Chen, and P. Dai, Effects of N addition on microstructure and mechanical properties of CoCrFeNiMn high entropy alloy produced by mechanical alloying and vacuum hot pressing sintering. Intermetallics 93 (2018) 228-34.
  • Cheng, W. Chen, X. Liu, Q. Tang, Y. Xie, and P. Dai, Effect of Ti and C addition s on the microstructure and mechanical properties of the FeCoCrNiMn high-entropy alloy. Mater. Sci. Eng, A 719 (2018) 192-8.
  • Varalakshmi, M. Kmaraj, and B.s. Murty, Processing and properties of nanocrystalline CuNiCoZnAlTi high entropy alloys by mechanical alloying. Mater. Sci. Eng. A 527 (2010) 1027-30.
  • Fu, W. Chen, Z. Chen, H. Wen, and E. J. Lavernia, Influence of Ti addition and sintering method on microstructure and mechanical behavior of a medium-entropy Al0.6CoNiFe alloy. Mater. Sci. Eng. A 619 (2014) 137-45.
  • Shivam, J. Basu, Y. Shadangi, M.K. Singh, and N.K.K. Mukhopadhyay: Mechano-chemical synthesis, stability and phase evolution in AlCoCrFeNiMn high entropy alloy. J. Alloys Compd, 757 (2018) 87-97.
  • Varalakshimi, G. Appa Rao, M. Kamaraj, and B.S. Murty: Hot consolidation and mechanical properties of Nano crystalline equiatomic AlFeTiCrZnCu high entropy alloy after mechanical alloying. J. Mater. Sci. 45 (2010) 5158-63.
  • Praveen, B. S. Murty, and R. S. Kottada: Alloying behavior in multi-component AlCoCrCuFe and NiCoCrCuFe high entropy alloys. Mater. Sci. Eng, A 534 (2012) 83-9.
  • Vaidya, M. Murakhnshina Garlopal: High-entropy alloys by mechanical alloying: A review, Mater. Res. 34 (2019) 664-86.
  • Praveen, A. Anupam, T. Sirasani, B. S. Murty, and R. S. Kottada: Characterization of oxide dispersed AlCoCrFe high entropy alloy synthesized by mechanical alloying and spark plasma sintering. Trans. Indian Inst. Met. 66 (2013) 369-73.
  • Colombini, R. Rosa, L. Trombi, M. Zadra, A. Casagrande, and P. Veronosi, Hugh entropy alloys obtained by field assisted powder metallurgy route: SPS and microwave heating. Mater. Chem. Phys. 210 (2018) 78-86.
  • Wang, Wei Ji, Zhengyi Fu: Mechanical alloying and spark plasma sintering of CoCrFeMnNiAl high-entropy alloy, Advanced Powder Technology. 25 (2014) 1334-8.
  • Prasad, Sh, Singh, B. B. Panigrahi: Mechanical activated synthesis of Alumina dispersed FeNiCoCrAlMn high entropy alloy. J. Alloys Compd, 692 (2017) 720-6.
  • W. Yeh, S.J. Lin, Breakthrough applications of high-entropy materials. J. Mater. Res. 33 (2018) 3129-37.

L. QH, Y. TM, G. ZN, et al. Microstructure and corrosion properties of AlCoCrFeNi high entropy alloy coatings deposited on AISI 1045 steel by the electrospark process. Metal Mater Trans A. 44 (2012) 1767-1778.